Improving Toileting Ability Among Elders Living in Long-Term Care Facilities in Taiwan
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The purpose was to test the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention program in improving toileting ability among elders living in long-term care facilities. This study used an experimental, two groups, and longitudinal research design. The theory-based intervention was designed based on Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, and called the self-care and exercise self-efficacy enhancement program. Activities of the intervention included performance accomplishment, various experiences, and verbal persuasion, and were provided by staff caregivers of long-term care facilities. The data was collected in baseline (time 1), 2 months (time 2), 4 months (time 3), and 6 months (time 4) after the intervention. However, 274 subjects were recruited from 18 long-term care facilities in Taiwan. They were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 120) or comparison group (n = 154) based on the facility they lived. The majority of subjects were female (n = 142), widowers/widow (n = 131), and aged 78.10 (SD = 10.65). To compare two groups of subjects' the demographic information and baseline toileting ability, results found that there were no statistical difference in sex, marriage status, educational level, economic, age, period of living in long-term care facilities, and baseline toileting ability (p > 0.05). To understand the predictors of the toileting ability, liner regression was performed. Results showed that lower body strength, perception of pain, and degree of right knee extension was significant predictors (R2 = 0.53). To understand toileting change, ANCOVA was performed. Although toileting ability between baseline and 4th time measurement showed improved in the experimental group, there were no statistical changes in toileting ability among 4 time's measurements. Therefore, this study provided value information that staff caregivers could apply self-care and exercise self-efficacy enhancement program to maintain toileting ability among elders living in long-term care facilities in Taiwan.