Development of Model Using Sociocognitive Variables to Explain Self-Care in Women with Type 2 Diabetes
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Purpose: Sociocognitive variables of self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectancies, and barriers to self-care were used to examine self-care practices in adult women with Type 2 diabetes. Two instruments to assess diabetes self-efficacy and social support in women were developed. A convenience sample of 198 adult women with diabetes volunteered to participate in the study. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, Social Support for Women with Diabetes Scale, Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale, Barriers to Self-Care Scale, Outcome Expectancies Scale, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale. Additionally, the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding was completed and used to control for confounding introduced by self-report data. Methods: The sample had a mean age of 51.5, was 79.7% Hispanic, and had mean duration of diabetes of 10.3 years. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between the explanatory variables and diabetes self-care activities. Analysis resulted in five explanatory models. Results: Income, self-efficacy, barriers to diet, and Hispanic ethnicity explained 37% (r 2 = .37) of diet self-care. The variance in medication self-care (15%) was explained by barriers to medication and social support. The combined use of oral and injectable medication and self-efficacy explained 32% (r2 = .32) of the variance in self-monitoring of blood glucose. Exercise self-care had 37% (r2 = .37) of the variance explained by barriers to exercise, income, and social support. Primary variables of interest, self-efficacy and social support, accounted for 74% (r2 = .74) of the variance in diabetes self-care. Conclusion: Findings from this study exemplify the importance of examining unique aspects of care which influence diabetes self-care within the social context of women's lives. In particular, self-efficacy, social support and barriers were significant explanatory variables.