Demo-Socioeconomic, Obstetric Variables, Perceived Stress and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Pregnant Women in Macao, China
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Purpose: To identify the relationship of demographic, socioeconomic and obstetric variables and health-related quality of life to perceived stress among Macao Chinese pregnant women. Methods: It was a cross-sectional and exploratory quantitative study among a community-based sample (n=1151) pregnant women during the second trimester. The setting was in an antenatal clinic of a university-affiliated regional public hospital in Macao. The perceived stress was measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and health-related quality of life was measured by the standard SF-12 Health Survey (SF-12). Results: A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that pregnant women who were younger (β = 0.085, p = 0.002) , single, divorced, separated or cohabitating (β = 0.067, p < 0.009), lower education attainment (β = 0.079, p = 0.003), worked long hours (β = 0.102, p < 0.001) or had an unplanned pregnancy (β = 0.063 p = 0.014) with late initiation of antenatal care (β = 0.066, p = 0.008) or poor physical (β = -0.501, < 0.001) or mental (β = -0.115, < 0.001) health-related quality of life had higher levels of perceived stress. Conclusion: The preliminary information was provided about Macao Pregnant women who had higher perceived stress during pregnancy that was associated with the demographic, socioeconomic, obstetric, and health-related quality of life variables. Development of a checklist or structured questions was necessary for clinical situations and tailor-made a program of stress management during pregnancy.