PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING OF COOPER PARENTAL SELF-EFFICACY SCALE-CHILD HEALTH BEHAVIOR
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Although numerous self-efficacy scales grounded in Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy were available, no specific scale that measured the concept of parental self-efficacy to influence child health behavior existed. The researcher developed the Cooper Parental Self-Efficacy Scale-Child Health Behavior (CPSS-CHB) and previously conducted a content validation study. The aims of this study were to 1.) ensure that the 28-item CPSS-CHB was readable, 2.) to determine reliability of the scale, and 3.) to initiate the establishment of validity.
Readability was established during a feasibility study with 20 participants recruited via emails and Facebook social network messages. Using SurveyMonkey.com, participants were directed to a link that opened an Internet-based survey. Participants were asked to complete the 28-item CPSS-CHB and provide basic demographic information. Areas for participant comments followed each item. The survey closed at 20 participants, although 50 contacts were made; these 20 surveys were completed within 24 hours. All 20 participants were parents. Participants included 13 (65%) women and 17 (85%) Caucasians. Fifteen (75%) of the participants were married, and 12 (60%) had children between 3 and 5 years of age. Nine (45%) participants had incomes of over $85,000 for the previous year. Parents ranged in age from 27 to 48 years with a mean of 36 years. The mean years in school was 16. The scale was deemed readable and easy to understand.
In a full study, reliability was examined using 298 participants, while concurrent and convergent validity were examined using 291 participants, and 290 participants for discriminant validity. The participants for the reliability and validity estimation portion of the study were recruited via a similar recruitment procedure as in the readability study. The first 300 parents and caregivers of children ages 3 to 16 years who responded from the recruited pool of approximately 800 e-mail messages, Facebook messages, Twitter postings, and additional posts to applicable parent-focused discussion board and chat room (ExpressiveParents.com) messages were included in the study. The message and survey link was used to request that those in receipt of the message and survey forward the link to contacts they knew who had children between 3 and 16 years of age. The instrument packet contained the Cooper Parental Self-Efficacy Scale-Child Health Behavior (CPSS-CHB), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (Rosenberg, 1965) and demographic items. The GSES was used to examine concurrent and convergent validity. The RSES was used to examine discriminant validity. The investigator set SurveyMonkey.com for a cut off of 300 participants. The survey was available and administered through the World Wide Web at the Survey Monkey portal, an on-line survey web site, for seven days, at which time 300 completed surveys had been collected. Participants were primarily married (87.9%), Caucasian (92%) women who were parents of pre-school and school-age children. The median number of children in each home was two, while the mean age of the participants was 40 years (SD ±9.4) with mean of 16.76 years in school (SD ±3.1). Five participants acknowledged an annual income level below $15,000, while 130 participants indicated annual income levels over $85,000.
Using the alpha coefficient, the internal consistency reliability for the entire scale was found to be .96. Principal components analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation was used to determine that a three-factor structure solution was the best fit for the scale. Factors were labeled problem times, stressful times, and good times. Only one item did not load on a factor.
With regard to concurrent validity, only a weak correlation (r= .17) was found between the CPSS-CHB scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Therefore, concurrent validity was not established in this study. Convergent validity was not supported in view of the weak correlation of the scale with the General Self-Efficacy Scale. However, discriminant validity was supported by the weak correlation (r= .07) found between the CPSS-CHB scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, even though a higher correlation of .3 or .4 was expected.
The CPSS-CHB was revised to include 27 items composed of three factors (problem times, stressful times, good times), judged internally consistent for this sample, but validity remains questionable. Construct validation of the CPSS-CHB was not demonstrated. Continued refinement of the scale and further validity testing is mandatory.
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