Parenting Stress, Social Support, Re-Birth Intention of Mother With Infant or Child
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Session presented on Sunday, July 27, 2014: Purpose: This study was performed to examine the correlation among the parenting stress, social support and re-birth intention of married women with infant or child. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out for 123 mothers having infant or child between March 01 and April 01, 2011 in Daegu-city of Korea. This study was investigated parenting stress, social support and re-birth rate of married women with infant or child. Results: Among the parenting stress scores, parent's pain score as the sub-items of the parenting stress was significantly different according to the sex composition of children (p<0.05). Parent's pain of mother with each other different genders children was higher than parent's pain of mother with same gender children (p<0.05). The re-birth intention rate of married women with infant or child was 31.7%. The major reasons why they avoided giving birth were 'economic burden', followed by 'to bring up present child well', 'not to want more children', 'to be subjected to individual and marital relation', and 'non-confidence in playing a role of parents'. The reasons of the subjects intending to give births were 'to need siblings for their child', 'to be pleased to see their children grow', 'to achieve family plan', and 'to be asked by family seniors' request or derived from a sense of obligation' in order. In bivariate analysis, re-birth intention rate was higher as the mother was younger (p<0.05), in the mothers who had job (p<0.05), in the mothers who had only one child (p<0.01), and in the mothers who had only girl or girls (p<0.01). In multiple logistic regression analysis, the variables affecting re-birth intention were the gender composition of children and number of child (p<0.05). Re-birth intention of the mother who had only girl infant or children was higher than re-birth intention of the mother who had boy and girl infant or children. And re-birth intention rate was lower as number of child was increasing. In correlation of re-birth intention, parenting stress and social support, parent's pain as sub-item of parenting stress and re-birth intention were negatively correlated (p<0.05). The parent's pains and dysfunctions between parents and children as sub-item of parenting stress were negatively correlated with social support (p<0.01), and Children's difficult characteristic as sub-item of parenting stress showed significant negative correlation with husbands' cooperation as social support (p<0.05). Conclusion: Low birth rate is associated with national existence, and it causes various social problems. If the birth rate of Korea remains at the current level, it will raise the average working age of Korea; it will weaken global competitiveness of industry; it will eventually reduce the rate of increase in national income. As a result, the younger generation will have to shoulder the burden of supporting the older generation, and the overall crisis of the social security system will hit the nation. As our society is rapidly becoming an aging society, consciousness of crisis on low birth rate in Korea has increased. To increase this low birth rate, an active political, economic and social involvement should be carried out. However, it is very difficult to increase low birth rate thorough policy because birth rate is affected by complex factors. Currently, the social participation of the married woman becomes enlarged and the desires to make their dream come true are strengthened. But most of married women have to take on the major responsibilities of parenting. Therefore, we should identify mother's needs. We should establish a policy to suit their own desires by analyzing the factors to affect their birth intention. In conclusion of above findings, parenting stress is associated with social support. And the parent pains as sub-item of parenting stress is associated with re-birth intention. The parent's pains as sub-item of parenting stress were negatively correlated with social support. To encourage re-birth and reduce mothers' parenting stress, we need create a social mood to reinforce social support.