Diffusion of Global Nursing Scholarship in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Palmieri, Patrick Albert
Edwards, Joan Elaine
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Session presented on Friday, September 26, 2014: Abbreviated Abstract: More than two decades ago, scholars determined nursing science was at a critical juncture with an urgent need to develop nursing knowledge relevant to the health of the global community (Meleis, 1993). Considering the rapid knowledge expansion in North American professional nursing and the expanding global context, Ketefian & Redman, (1997) stated, nursing science now faces the challenge of moving to its next phase of development, which we call becoming globally relevant. This movement entails a variety of activities and changes in the way we do science, a responsibility that should be shared by scientists in the U.S. and internationally (p. 15). Again, early in the new millennium scholars called for the development of a universal holistic model of scholarship for the larger nursing identity as required to respond to the impact of globalization (Riley, Beal, Levi, & McCausland, 2002). Yet, in this new millennium, there is little evidence to demonstrate this challenge has been addressed. The purpose of this presentation is to propose a strategy to make nursing scholarship globally relevant in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The presentation emphasizes the need for professional nursing organizations to engage in the development of clinical practice and professional development standards in LMICs. Although nursing educational standards are slowly diffusing throughout the world through efforts at the World Health Organization, there continues to be a notable absence of evidence-based clinical practice and professional standards in the LMICs. These standards are not only critical to appropriately regulate the nursing profession, they are also essential to improve the overall quality of nursing services provided to patients and communities. Considering the previous work by scholars (e.g. Boyer, 1990; Fawcett, Watson, Neuman, Walker, & Fitzpatrick, 2001; Glassick, 2000; Schon, 1985, 1995) and the new calls to reconsider the globalization of knowledge based on fieldwork (e.g. Farmer, Kleinman, Kim, & Basilico, 2013; McKinnon, & Fitzpatrick, 2012), this presentation defines a pragmatic agenda for the globalization of nursing scholarship in LMICs. In addition, the presentation describes how professional nursing organizations can act as agents for change by providing guidance and knowledge. With a contemporary approach to stimulate generative progress through nursing scholarship, international professional nursing organizations can actively diffuse modern nursing innovation to strengthen LMIC nursing practice. This strategy has potential for more rapid actualization of evidence based practice and improved outcomes in LMICs. The presentation identifies the challenges associated with advancing a global nursing scholarship agenda and presents potential solutions, including the development of well-defined and result-oriented regional collaborations with universities, scholarly organizations, professional societies, and regulatory entities. Abbreviated Reference List: Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Menlo Park, CA: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Farmer, P., Kleinman, A., Kim, J. Y., & Basilico, M. (2013). Reimagining global health: An introduction. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Fawcett, J., Watson, J., Neuman, B., Walker, P. H., & Fitzpatrick, J. (2001). On nursing theories and evidence. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33 (2), 115-119. Glassick, C. E. (2000). Boyers expanded definitions of scholarship, the standards for assessing scholarship, and the elusiveness of the scholarship of teaching. Academic Medicine, 75, 877-880. Glassick, C. E., Huber, M. T., & Maeroff, G. L. (1997). Scholarship assessed: Evaluation of the professoriate. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Ketefian, S., & Redman, R. W. (1997). Nursing science in the global community. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 29(1), 11-15. Meleis, A. I. (2010). Transitions theory: Middle range and situation specific theories in nursing research and practice. New York, NY: Springer Publishing. McKinnon, T., & Fitzpatrick, J. (2012). Global service-learning in nursing. Washington, DC: National League for Nursing. Riley, J. M., Beal, J., Levi, P., & McCausland, M. P. (2002). Revisioning nursing scholarship. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 34(4), 383-389. DOI: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2002.00383.x Schon, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York, NY: Basic Books. Schon, D. A. (1995). Knowing in action. The new scholarship requires a new epistemology. Change, 27(6), 27-34.