Using Resilience to Influence Health Promotion Worldwide
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Session presented on Sunday, July 26, 2015: Purpose: To rebound or recoil is the definition of the Latin verb resilire from which the term resilience evolved in the early 17th century. According to McAslan (2010), resilience was introduced into scholarly literature in the early 1800s to describe properties of timber. It was not until the early 1970s when the concept was used to describe the environment, ecology and economics (Holling, 1973). Early pioneers in research on resilience in individuals included Norman Garmezy, Emmy WeRN, and Sir Michael Rutter. Garmezy (1993) wanted to understand the diverse outcomes of children with schizophrenic parents. Emmy WeRN (WeRN & Smith, 1982; WeRN & Smith, 1992; WeRN, 1995) studied a cohort of children boRNn Kauai in 1955 finding many maturing into successful adults even in the face of adversity. Studies of children on the Isle of Wight as well as orphans in Romania by Sir Michael Rutter (1987; 1993) revealed that children can overcome risks and live a successful positive life. The most interesting aspect of these studies is that each research group worked independently even though their findings were remarkably similar. The construct of resilience was introduced into the nursing and allied health literature the late 1980s. When searching CINAHL Complete with the search term resilien*, one of the first articles published by nurses was in the JouRN of BuRNare & Rehabilitation in 1986. The construct of resilience in the nursing literature was first published in the JouRN of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services in 1989. The early publications were of mixed content that included concept analysis, theory development, and studies in pediatrics, the nursing profession and nursing students. Resilience frameworks and theories have been developed across disciplines with adversity as the common antecedent (Almedom & Glandon, 2007) . The framework that lends itself to organizing literature related to culture includes the broad levels of individual, family, and community resilience (Rutter, 1987; WeRN & Smith, 1982; WeRN & Smith, 1992). As the construct of resilience was explored in more detail, the question of universal application was raised. Early research across different cultures and populations indicated similarities and differences in how resilience was understood globally. The purpose of this literature review is to examine individual, family and community resilience in different populations and cultures around the globe. This review will present key considerations for health promotion in various populations and cultures. Methods: The terms resilience, culture, ethnic*, immigrant, indigenous, and health were used to search the CINAHL Complete, MEDLINE, PsychARTICLES, PsychINFO and SocINDEX databases. Limits included peer reviewed publications from 2009 through 2014. The search resulted in 128 articles. Another 36 articles were located by hand searching reference lists for a total of 164 articles. After review of the articles that included the antecedent of adversity as well as discussion of the individual, family and/or community resilience, the final sample for review included 62 publications. Results: Review of these articles identified adversities including disaster, war, violence, refugee and immigrant status, trauma, cancer, and social change. The populations and cultures included youth, adults and elderly in Middle EasteRNAsian, Scandinavian, North and South American and African countries (Hobfoll et al., 2011; Ishibashi et al., 2010; Kirmayer et al., 2011; Kral et al., 2014; Lou & Ng, 2012; Reyes & Elias, 2011; Tol, Song, & Jordans, 2013). Analysis revealed both common and specific individual, family and community resilience factors across the globe (Allen et al., 2014; Buse, Burker, & BeRNchio, 2013; Ungar, 2011; Ungar, 2013). Conclusion: Understanding both the common and specific factors related to resilience will enhance the care provided by nurses and other healthcare providers to ensure the provision of culturally appropriate health promotion to those facing adversity.