Evolution of an Empowerment Instrument
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The purpose of this presentation is to detail the evolution of a reliable and valid instrument: the Sieloff-King Assessment of Work Team/Group Empowerment within Organizations (SKAWTGEO©).
Rationale and Significance:
The SKAWTGEO, initially developed and psychometrically tested in 1996, is the only nursing-theory based instrument designed to estimate the empowerment of a work team or group within a health care organization. The instrument has been used internationally, translated into Finnish and Hebrew, and is currently being translated into Korean and Turkish. The researcher proposes that work team/group empowerment is a critical factor in the further improvement in the delivery of safe and effective patient care within health care organizations, and the instrument can be used by any health care group to further improve its empowerment.
The instrument was initially developed as part of dissertation research. Subsequent revisions used theoretical analysis, content validity studies, confirmatory factor analysis and a qualitative research project using two focus groups.
Sample and Setting:
The sample involved in the initial development of the instrument was 460. Subsequently, two content validity studies were done: 1) one expert (I. King), and 2) eight experts. The confirmatory factor analysis included data from 357 subjects. A focus group qualitative study included seven participants. Other than the focus group research (completed in a meeting room), the setting was the work area of the participants.
Initially a thirty-six item instrument focusing on nursing departmental power, the current instrument is a twenty-six item instrument focusing on work team or group empowerment.
The current instrument, while still theoretically true to the original version, is more reflective of current terminology, and the clarity of both the instrument and the items has been improved.